Chevron is facing some serious headwinds in South America. This past Wednesday, a Brazilian federal prosecutor declared the U.S. oil giant failed to properly manage the aftermath of a November drilling accident and subsequent spill, which could lead to the company being barred from operating in the country.
“Chevron may never be allowed to freely operate in Brazil again,” federal prosecutor Eduardo Santos de Oliveira told reporters in the wake of the spill that allowed about 3,000 barrels of crude oil to spew into a seabed.
This most recent blemish to the brand comes on the heels of another calamity. On March 16, the Brazilian navy spotted a thin strip of oil in an offshore field called Frade, off the coast of Brazil. Seventeen top executives from Chevron and Transocean, a Swiss-based offshore drilling company, may face a criminal indictment for the alleged oil leak. Chevron has a controlling interest in Frade, as it owns 52 percent of the field and operates its production, while Transocean’s drills are used for extraction.
A federal judge in Rio de Janiero granted a request from prosecutors and it is now up to the judge involved to determine whether to accept the charges and proceed with the case. The charges are expected to be filed in the next few days. The 17 executives, led by George Buck, head of Chevron’s Brazil unit, have already been prohibited from leaving the country and were forced to turn over their passports to police.
The high-profile spill last November resulted in an $11 billion civil lawsuit, Brazil’s largest environmental decision to-date.
Production in the Frade field has been halted as Chevron tries to contain the oil, and its image, in the area. The halting is a major cause for concern for Chevron, as Frade has the capacity to produce 80,000 barrels a day, more than three percent of Brazil’s total output.
There is skepticism regarding Chevron’s involvement in the leak. According to Cleveland Jones, a geologist at UFRJ, the state university of Rio, “Until there is some further proof, there is a good chance that this leak is a natural occurrence” and “Leaks of this size are common, and are how people realized there was oil in the area in the first place.”
If Chevron is seeming like the most guilty of the perpetrators in the latest trend of oil spills, it is important to note that last November’s spill of 3,000 barrels was less than 0.1 percent of BP’s disaster in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010.
Rather than point fingers though, let’s hope it doesn’t take too many more accidents for the majority of the world, and not just Brazil, to realize the inevitability of the damage that careless oil extraction brings. -Raffi Simel
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Back in February, the bully of American agriculture, Monsanto, breathed a sigh of relief when a federal class-action lawsuit against the agricultural and chemical company was dismissed. The Missouri-based gene giant flexed its muscles even more on March 15 when the U.S. Government approved a large-scale experiment with genetically modified crops that Monsanto insists will thrive in the most arid of conditions.
On the surface, the move sounds like a godsend for Middle America crops. But once all the cornhusks are counted, not a single organic farmer would be shocked if Monsanto’s profits end up being the thing that grows must abundantly. Rather than continue pouting about the agribusiness’ questionable ways, the group striving to slow the company down, Occupy Monsanto, donned biohazard suits on March 16 and told Congress again about the brand’s harmful actions.
Monsanto’s volatile relationship with organic farmers was first introduced to the masses with the 2008 documentary Food Inc. Monsanto brings patent-enforcement lawsuits against organic farmers at an average rate of 13 lawsuits per year. The farmers who don’t use Monsanto products are charged with infringing on Monsanto’s seed patent. Often, pollen from a genetically modified seed originating at a Monsanto farm can crossbreed with the organic seeds of neighboring farms. When this happens, and the company finds traces of their patented seed and sues for patent infringement.
Hundreds of farmers and advocates, led by the Organic Seed Growers and Trade Association, ascended on Lower Manhattan to put a serious dent in Monsanto’s patent policy with a lawsuit of their own. They were hoping that the New York Federal District Court that oversaw the class-action suit against the company would sympathize with the organic farmers and prevent Monsanto from enforcing their patent.
The ruling judge, Naomi Reice Buchwald, was not so sympathetic. She said that the plaintiffs had “overstated the magnitude of [Monsanto’s] patent enforcement” and that Monsanto’s average of annual lawsuits “is hardly significant when compared to the number of farms in the United States, approximately two million.”
The greater significance of the lawsuit is that it points to troubles in organic agriculture. The dismissed Monsanto suit highlights the increasing burden and barrier to success of organic farms and produce. With most organic farms already containing anywhere from one-half to two percent genetically modified seed, it’s not hard to imagine American farms where nothing is left completely organic anymore, especially with companies like Monsanto spreading their seed over the organic agricultural community.
But if OSGATA and others just look to South America for inspiration, they’d realize all hope wasn’t lost against the menacing Monsanto. Thanks to the unrelenting pressure of a farming community of about 6,000, Peru officially banned genetically modified ingredients anywhere in its borders for the next decade. A few more punches like that to Monsanto’s gut should at least make the behemoth stagger a bit. -Raffi Simel
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United Nations members met in Nagoya, Japan in 2010 and agreed to set aside 10 percent of the world’s oceans as reserves by 2020 as part of a target called the “Convention on Biological Diversity.” A year and a half later, that target is no closer to reality than it was then. Some estimates say that less than half of 1% of our oceans are fully protected as no-take zones (areas in which destructive activities are prohibited). According to fishery scientists, ocean reserves provide hope for restoring areas that have been stressed by extractive and destructive activities.
Ocean reserves operate much like national parks. However, nearly 15 times as much land area is protected than ocean areas. One particularly at-risk region is the Antarctic Ocean. Home to about 10% of the world’s oceanic life (including 10,000 species such as penguins, seals, and whales), the Antarctic stands to lose a lot if the United Nations doesn’t stay true to its commitment.
Luckily, the UN’s lack of progress is being met by a coalition of environmental groups calling itself the Antarctic Ocean Alliance, which includes prominent members such as Greenpeace, the International Fund for Animal Welfare, and our friends at the World Wildlife Fund.
Last week, the Alliance proposed a network of reserves spanning 1.39 million square miles, comprised of 19 reserve zones around Antarctica. This would be the world’s largest collection of marine reserves to date. Currently, the largest single reserve in the world is the Chagos Islands area in the Indian Ocean, which is 210,000 square miles.
Hopefully this giant push for desperately-needed ocean reserves by the world’s leaders in environmental activism will not only catch the attention of the United Nations, but propel it into action. –Raffi Simel
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A team of scientists from the University of Delhi, the U.K. National History Museum, and Belgium’s Vrije University has spent more than 2,000 hours over the last 5 years digging in northeastern India beneath tropical undergrowth. Their tireless shoveling has led to the discovery of a suspected six new species, three of which have already been confirmed.
The elusive animals are part of a group of limbless amphibians who split off from their other relatives over 140 million years ago in Africa, of the “caecillian” species. These tiny snakelike amphibians are “very difficult to see above the soil because of their burrowing nature and cryptic appearance”, said S.D. Biju of the University of Delhi.
Little is known of the species being called Chikila Fulleri, an extension of the African local tribal name for caecillians. What is known is that females are extremely protective of their young. Mothers guard their eggs for nearly 95 days without eating anything. The team noted that this protective feature is rarely seen from other amphibians. Young caecillians have been known to feast off the flesh of their mother’s skin after hatching, which doesn’t seem very fair after three months of such high-level maternal care.
Unfortunately, there are no guarantees scientists will be able to learn more about the species in the future. Their native habitats in India have been in serious jeopardy due to slash and burn agriculture. If the enormity of the agricultural malpractices in the region can affect an animal as rare and tiny as the Fulleri, desperate measures must be taken to protect habitats in the area. Biju’s hope is that this family of new species “may be a flagship animal for conservation in the region.” –Raffi Simel (photos by S.D. Biju)
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